Training

Our courses have wealth of knowledge

Objectives

Participants in the workshop will gain an understanding of materials degradation/corrosion ramifications; materials selection and how to identify the various forms of corrosion attack.

This training gives a comprehensive review of materials failure and corrosion problems during oil and gas production/transportation and its mitigation. The failures mechanism will be examined with the various types in the oil and gas industry. Factors affecting each of the various forms of materials degradation and ways of mitigating this threat will be discussed. The principles of failures must be understood in order to effectively select materials and utilize metal structures for the optimum economic life of facilities and safety in oil and gas operations.

There are several methods for corrosion control: (i) proper material selection and design, (ii) metal coating, (iii) cathodic protection, (iv) corrosion inhibitors, (v) non-metallic materials, etc.

A metallurgical factor is the milestone of the right way for minimizing corrosion to be as less as possible in the most corrosive environment industries. There are many metallurgical factors that affect corrosion as, chemical composition, alloying elements, mechanical properties, heat treatment, surface coating, welding and manufacturing conditions and stresses (residual or applied).

Understanding these factors is of great importance to minimize failure in many industrial applications. Since the environment play an important role in materials corrosion, petroleum and chemical industries discovered various corrosion problems as, localised corrosion, corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement/sulfide stress cracking (SSC) – etc. Many of the corrosion failure problems can be prevented by a proper attention from the early stage of material manufacturing, processing, treatment and machining.

Benefits

  • Improve your employees’ skills
  • Comply with applicable directives and standards, such as API, NACE, ISO, CSA, etc.
  • Take advantage of our many years of experience in many fields
  • Benefit from our years of experience and expertise

Free Takeaway!

The participants will receive as “takeaways” a series of scientific publications by the author(s) or a free copy of the book.

COURSE

Review of Materials and Corrosion Threats in the Oil & Gas Industry

This course focuses on the impacts of corrosion and materials selection as well as the potential problems caused. It also provides a review of the causes of corrosion, degradation of materials and the methods for identification, monitoring and control. An understanding of materials failures and its control is vital for any company seeking to avoid hazards and the high costs.
This course includes:

REVIEW OF CORROSION FORMS

Identify various forms of corrosion damage according to NACE classification:

  • Electrochemical Assisted Corrosion
  • Mechanical Assisted Corrosion
  • Environmental Assisted Corrosion

CORROSION BARRIERS

  • This covers different methods for mitigating different forms of corrosion such as material replacement; inhibitions; changes for process parameters etc..or Material

Materials Used in Oil and Gas

  1. Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
  2. Materialistic Stainless Steels
  3. Corrosion Resistant Alloys

Cathodic Protection

Effect of Cathodic Protection: current imposed on a structure is to shift its potential more negative

Hydro testing

Criteria and Guidelines used for designing Hydro testing procedure with emphasis on

  • Oxygen corrosion
  • Bacteria Corrosion

Coating Inspection, Defects and Failure Modes

  • Corrosion protection coatings
  • System components
  • Surface preparation
  • Standards
  • Basic concepts
  • Coatings defects/failures

Case Study

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of Gas and Liquid Pipelines


Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is thought to be responsible for a pipeline failures every year, it continues to be a safety concern to pipeline operators and government regulatory agencies, and it must be addressed in integrity management plans. This course will define what stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is – and it will discuss the current understanding of SCC as well as how to deal and manage this phenomenon. Fundamentals on an SCC management program, design changes, codes regulations and recommended practices will be introduced. While the subject matter is wide ranging, the learning objectives will be to underlying engineering principles in each aspect of SCC. Stress corrosion failure can happen “unexpectedly” and rapidly after a period of service leading to disastrous failure of structures or leaks in pipe.
The topics to be covered are:

  1. History of Pipeline SCC
  2. Mechanisms of Pipeline Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC)
    • High-pH (Classical) SCC
    • Low-pH (Near-neutral pH, non-classical) SCC
    • Stages of cracking
    • Three factors – tensile stress, corrosive environment, susceptible material
    • Role of coatings and CP
    • The latest thinking from SCC R&D
  3. Field Assessment of SCC
  4. Sources of Stress
  5. Standard Practices
    • CSA
    • CEPA Recommended Practices
    • US DOT/OPS
    • NACE
    • ASME

Case Study

Materials for Use in Oil & Gas: CO2 (sweet), H2S (sour) & Chloride (Cl-)

Objectives

  • Creating awareness of recent developments in materials science and technology
  • Learning about new materials used in the petroleum and petrochemical industries

Issues and Concerns (Problem): i.e., occurrences in pipelines and pressure vessels handling sour gas and oil (upstream and downstream operations), gas transmission pipelines, etc.

Presentation Topics

  • Definitions of SSC, HSC, SCC and “Sour Service”.
  • Mechanism of, and Factors Affecting Environmental Cracking (EC) in Carbon Steels (CS), Low Alloy Steels (LAS) & Corrosion-Resistant Alloys (CRAs).
  • EC in Other Metals and Alloys.
  • Effects of Welding on Environmental Cracking.
  • Restrictions on Materials for Sour Service.
  • Laboratory Testing Methods.
  • Failure Examples
  • Factors Affecting Environmental Cracking:

Understanding these factors is of great importance to minimize and control corrosion problem in many industrial applications. Since the environment play an important role in materials corrosion, petroleum and chemical industries revealed many corrosion problems as, localised corrosion, corrosion fatigue, sulfide stress cracking (SSC), stress corrosion cracking (SCC), intergranular corrosion, etc. Many of the corrosion failure problems can be prevented by a proper attention from the early stage of material manufacturing, processing, treatment and machining.

Case Study

Damage due to hydrogen embrittlement: Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) in Low Strength Steel


Issues and Concerns: i.e., occurrences in pipelines and pressure vessels handling sour gas and oil (upstream and downstream operations), gas transmission pipelines, hydrofluoric acid service, etc.

  1. Mechanism, including the metallurgical and environmental conditions affecting the likelihood of HIC development. The related mechanism “Stress-Oriented Hydrogen-Induced Cracking” will also be described.
  2. Laboratory Testing Methods and HIC-resistant steel purchase specification quality assurance testing and acceptance criteria.
  3. Field and Plant Monitoring Techniques.
  4. Inspection and Techniques.
  5. Metallurgical Control Methods
  6. Environmental Control Options
  7. Selection of Test Method and Acceptance Criteria
  8. Hydrogen Failure Mechanism, Failure mitigation and Material Selection

Case Study

Corrosion Management of Carbon Steel Pipelines in Sour Gas Environment

The course will cover

SCOPE

  • Behavior of sour gas in saline fluids
  • Behavior of Elemental Sulfur in Sour Gas/Saline Fluids
  • Corrosion in sour gas
  • Impact of Elemental Sulfur on Corrosion
  • Guidelines of Mitigation of Carbon Steel Pipeline Corrosion in the presence or absence of Elemental sulfur
  • Challenges with Inspection and Frequent Pigging of Carbon Steel in Sour Environment
  • Challenges with Corrosion Monitoring in Sour Gas in the presence and in the absence of Elemental Sulfur
  • Scaling in Sour Gas and Impact on the pipeline Integrity
  • Case History of Failures
  • Top of the Line Corrosion
  • Flow modeling and Impact on the pipeline Integrity
  • Corrosion Inhibitors in Sour Gas Environment; formula and Performance
  • Difference Between Batch and Continuous Inhibitors
  • Chemicals Used to Mitigate Impact of Elemental Sulfur
  • Sour Gas Injection ; Challenges and Mitigation
  • Impact of Flow Modeling on Corrosion and Mitigations
  • Corrosion Prediction Tools; Pros and Cons

Inhibitors in Oil & Gas

SCOPE

  • Types of Inhibitors; Cathodic; anodic; filming amines
  • Differences between Continuous and Batch Inhibitors
  • Calculation for batch inhibition volumes
  • Inhibitor selection criteria
  • Criteria for Continuous Inhibitor dosages
  • Monitoring of Inhibitor residuals
  • Evaluation and Testing of Corrosion Inhibitors

Integrity of Gas Plants

SCOPE

  • Understanding the Process of Sour Gas in Amine Gas Plants
  • Discuss Different Types of Amine Solutions
  • Corrosion Monitoring in Gas Plants
  • Indication of Corrosion through Amine Analysis
  • Amine Cracking and Mitigation
  • Challenges with Amine Makeup and impact on process and integrity
  • Case History of Failures and Mitigation
  • Material Selection in Gas Plants
  • Practical Mitigation to Overhead Lines Corrosion
  • Fouling in Amine Systems
  • Impact of Glycol Dehydration on Sour Gas processing and injection

Heavy Oil Production and Steam Generators

SCOPE

  • Process Description of the Heavy Oil Production and difference between Condensate and Bitumen in Sour Gas
  • Impact of Inlet Separators Performance and Efficiency on Gas Quality and Water disposal
  • Different Types of Boilers and Steam Generators
  • Degradation Mechanisms of Steam Generators; e.g. Caustic corrosion and cracking
  • Case Histories of Boiler Corrosion Failures and Explosions
  • Proper Material Selection of Heavy Oil Production
  • Impact of Huff/Puff Operation
  • Different Methods of Water Treatment
  • The use of K-55 materials in Heavy Oil Production
  • Corrosion Monitoring Locations

Materials and Corrosion in Refineries

SCOPE

  • Introduction to Refinery Processes
  • Corrosion Challenges in Refinery Units; desalters; Crude distillation; Hydro-cracking and Hydro-treating Units;
  • Detailed of High Temperature Degradation Mechanisms in Refineries; Oxidation; Sulphidation; Napthenic acid; etc..
  • Corrosion Monitoring using online devices and solution analysis
  • Amine process in Refineries
  • Case Histories of Failures

Scaling and Cleaning of Equipment

SCOPE

  • Basic Understanding of Scale Formation
  • Types of Scales in the Formation and in the pipelines and utilities ; Iron sulphides; carbonates; sulphates
  • Types of Scales in Gas Plants and Refiners; mainly iron sulphides at high temperatures
  • Types of Scales in Steam Generators ; silicates; carbonates and sulphates
  • Introduction to cleaning process in Absorbers; Stripping Columns; Heat Exchangers; Piping and Steam Generators
  • Theories and Mitigations of Pyrophoric Iron and Black Powder and mitigation process

Cathodic Protection

  • Theory of Cathodic Protection and Impact of Stray Currents
  • Design of Cathodic Protection Systems

Structures suffering from widespread chloride contamination and corrosion benefit from the use of cathodic protection. Cathodic protection and electrochemical systems such as galvanic, impressed current and electrochemical chloride extraction / re-alkalization systems supply direct current to the reinforcing steel to counteract corrosion activity.

Effect of Cathodic Protection: current imposed on a structure is to shift its potential more negative (called polarization)

The potential is measured with respect to a reference electrode (called the pipe-to-soil potential)

Where does Stray Current Come From?

  • Cathodic protection systems
  • Induced a.c. currents from overhead power lines
  • Welding currents
  • Telluric currents
  • d.c.

Hydrotesting

SCOPE

  • Guidelines of the quality of Hydro-test Water
  • Theory of MIC Corrosion and Mitigations ; different tipes of MIC
  • Theory of Oxygen Corrosion and Mitigations
    • Guidelines of the quality of Hydro-test Water
    • Theory of MIC Corrosion and Mitigations ; different tipes of MIC
    • Theory of Oxygen Corrosion and Mitigations

The two major corrosion issues with hydro-test waters used on C-Mn steel fabrications are oxygen corrosion and anaerobic pitting corrosion mediated by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), often in association with complex bio-films

Pipeline Engineering

Course Objectives

The course will cover methods available to assess the significance of defects detected in onshore and offshore pipelines. It will introduce discuss methods used to assess internal and external corrosion, dents and gouges, cracks (e.g. SCC), weld defects, and fatigue. The course is unique as it is a holistic approach to defect assessment, and it ensures the attendees appreciate all aspects of the subject, including repair and risk management. The following topics will be covered:

  • Pipeline Engineering Basics
  • Pipeline Materials Selection
  • Pipeline Design
  • Pipeline Welding
  • Internal Pipeline Corrosion
  • Monitoring of Internal Pipeline Corrosion
  • Pipeline Testing, Operation, Inspection
  • External Pipeline Corrosion and its Prevention
  • Cathodic Protection
  • Utility and Intelligent (Smart) Pig Inspection
  • Pipeline Repair and Rehabilitation
  • Pipeline Integrity Management

Metallurgy for Non Metallurgist

Introduction to Steel Metallurgy

The Introduction to Steel Metallurgy provides an overview of the basic principles of ferrous metallurgy and how steel products are made. Joining techniques are described and the physical properties, standards and definitions of steel grades are reviewed. The course concludes with guidance on the specification and selection of steel grades for a wide variety of applications.

The course will also provide an overview of metals and alloys and relating it to the mechanical and physical characteristics of metals. Moreover, the training course will contain discussions on ferrous alloys (plain and alloy steels, Stainless steels and cast irons) and non-ferrous alloys; i.e.: corrosion and high temperature applications, such as nickel-based alloys, etc. The nature of hot and cold working of metals and heat treatment, including annealing, tempering, normalizing, and case hardening will be explained.

Aims

Participants will have gained an understanding of the important principals of engineering involving properties and characteristics of metals and alloys, including heat treatment of commercial steels and non-ferrous alloys:

  • Introduction
  • What is Metallurgy?
  • Basics of Steel & Cast Iron
  • Iron Carbon Diagram
  • Heat Treatment
  • Effect of alloying elements on steel properties
  • Properties of Metals
  • Testing of material
  • Welding Processes – Joining

Heat Treatment

  • Heat Treatment Processes
  • Normalizing — Annealing
  • Stress Relieving
  • Quenching (Hardening) — Tempering
  • Hardness and harden-ability of steel
  • Specific processes and their applications

Introduction to Materials Selection


This course covers the basic important factors that need to be considered such as the mechanical properties of the material and the environment where the material be used.

Factor to be considered in performance specification are the risks and consequences of either over or under specification. i.e.: performance specifications to suite resistance to corrosion

The course shall cover:

  • Corrosion Resistance
  • Mechanical Properties (Strength / Flexibility)
  • Resistance to Physical Conditions (Temperature / Pressure)
  • Required Life
  • Weld-ability
  • Reliability
  • Cost

Case Study

Advanced Metallurgy

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys.

Metallurgy is subdivided into ferrous metallurgy and non-ferrous metallurgy. Ferrous metallurgy involves processes and alloys based on iron while non-ferrous metallurgy involves processes and alloys based on other metals.

COURSE OUTLINE

  • Principles of Metallurgy
  • Materials selection and detailed scope of:
  • Carbon and Low Alloy Steels in Sour Service
  • Martensitic Stainless Steels
  • Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)
  • Factors affecting SSC* include: (*: Sulphide stress corrosion cracking)
    • Metallurgical condition and strength of the material.
    • pH of the water phase.
    • H2S partial pressure.
    • Total stress (residual plus applied).
    • Temperature.
    • Exposure period.
    • Galvanic effects.
    • Presence of other species – e.g.: chlorides, oxygen.
  • Metallurgy and Welding
  • Environmentally-assisted Cracking (EAC):
    • Understand the relations between the structure of a material and to the properties of the materials in presence of environment(s):
  • Martensitic Steels
  • Failure Analysis
  • Welding

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability


An understanding of the properties of the makeup of alloys and the effects of joining methods on their micro-structures is crucial to ensure the performance of components and structures in service.

Objectives

Upon the successful completion of this course, each participant will be able to:

  • Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on metallurgy and welding technology including, fabrication and inspection in accordance with American Welding Society (AWS), ASME and API codes & standards
  • Differentiate the various welding process such as SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, FCAW and OAW
  • Identify the arc welding consumables including welding wires, coated electrodes, sub arc wires and fluxes, neutral and active fluxes and shielding gases
  • Describe the properties and strength of materials and carryout destructive testing
  • Analyze the fatigue of welded structures, joint design as well as dissimilar welds and weld overlays
  • Characterize the metallurgical properties of steel and heat-treatment and implement welding quality control
  • Practice the latest standards and procedure for welding pipeline.
  • Explain the standards and specification of ASME and practice the correct welding procedures as well as supplemental variables and special consideration for toughness.
  • Implement welding safety with proper procedure and specification

Case Study

Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA)

Purpose

An introduction to the methods used to determine the size of pipe imperfections that may be large enough to lead to fracture. Key concepts discussed: fracture toughness (CTOD and J), elastic/plastic fracture mechanics, failure assessment diagram (FAD), strain-based design.

Course content:

  • Background:
    • Basic Concepts:
  • Recent Developments:

Summary of Key Points

  • Methodology of ECA:.
  • Toughness Property Measurement:
  • Current Developments

Material Failure: Root Cause Analysis (RCA)

OBJECTIVE:

Participants will be provided with the essential knowledge and skills necessary for developing a material failure Root Cause Analysis (RCA) for material failure diagnosis.

TOPICS:

  • Introduction to Engineering Materials in Oil/Gas and process industries
  • Introduction to materials failures
  • Corrosion failure:
    • Cost of corrosion
    • Corrosion forms
    • Corrosion mechanisms
    • Corrosion control
  • Mechanical failure
  • Root Cause Analysis (RCA) technique
  • Problem definition
  • Failure investigation

Case Study

Fracture Control in Engineering

Target audience:

Materials engineers and scientists who know about Charpy testing but would like to know more about fracture mechanics concepts and test methods.

Course content:

  • Crack-tip stress concentrations and characterizing parameters
  • Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM): stress intensity factor K
  • Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM): J-integral J and crack-tip opening displacement CTOD
  • Notch toughness testing
  • Fracture toughness testing (ASTM E 1290, E 1920, E 1820)
  • Fracture control in pipelines: fast ductile fracture and weld defect assessment
  • Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) methodology applied to pipeline imperfections

Case Study

Laboratory Testing

Environmental Testing

  • Atmospheric
  • Salt spray exposure
  • Temperature/Humidity exposure
  • Environment chamber (cyclic heating and cooling) – Soil box exposure
  • Cyclic loading – Customized environments (Pressure, temperature, stress, gas)

Corrosion Evaluations/Studies:

  • Standardized testing (ASTM, NACE, API)
  • Electrochemical testing and evaluation
    • Potentiodynamic polarization
    • Polarization resistance
    • Potentiostatic/galvanostatic polarization
    • Electrochemical noise
    • Autoclave – HPHT
    • Flowloops

REGISTRATION

Please contact us at: Contact Us Or melboujd@gmail.com

Your registration includes a copy of the course brochure; refreshments and lunch each day of the course and free Takeaway.

If you would like further information on this courses, please contact:

Dr. Mimoun Elboujdaini +1(832)339-3693 or
Dr. Magdy Girgis at +1(403)516-1525